# Arraymancer - A n-dimensional tensor (ndarray) library.

Arraymancer is a tensor (N-dimensional array) project in Nim. The main focus is providing a fast and ergonomic CPU, Cuda and OpenCL ndarray library on which to build a scientific computing ecosystem.

The library is inspired by Numpy and PyTorch and targets the following use-cases:

- N-dimensional arrays (tensors) for numerical computing
- machine learning algorithms (as in Scikit-learn: least squares solvers, PCA and dimensionality reduction, classifiers, regressors and clustering algorithms, cross-validation).
- deep learning

The ndarray component can be used without the machine learning and deep learning component. It can also use the OpenMP, Cuda or OpenCL backends.

Note: While Nim is compiled and does not offer an interactive REPL yet (like Jupyter), it allows much faster prototyping than C++ due to extremely fast compilation times. Arraymancer compiles in about 5 seconds on my dual-core MacBook.

## Show me some code

Arraymancer tutorial is available here.

Here is a preview of Arraymancer syntax.

### Tensor creation and slicing

```
import math, arraymancer
const
x = @[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
y = @[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
var
vandermonde: seq[seq[int]]
row: seq[int]
vandermonde = newSeq[seq[int]]()
for i, xx in x:
row = newSeq[int]()
vandermonde.add(row)
for j, yy in y:
vandermonde[i].add(xx^yy)
let foo = vandermonde.toTensor()
echo foo
# Tensor of shape 5x5 of type "int" on backend "Cpu"
# |1 1 1 1 1|
# |2 4 8 16 32|
# |3 9 27 81 243|
# |4 16 64 256 1024|
# |5 25 125 625 3125|
echo foo[1..2, 3..4] # slice
# Tensor of shape 2x2 of type "int" on backend "Cpu"
# |16 32|
# |81 243|
```

### Reshaping and concatenation

```
import arraymancer, sequtils
let a = toSeq(1..4).toTensor.reshape(2,2)
let b = toSeq(5..8).toTensor.reshape(2,2)
let c = toSeq(11..16).toTensor
let c0 = c.reshape(3,2)
let c1 = c.reshape(2,3)
echo concat(a,b,c0, axis = 0)
# Tensor of shape 7x2 of type "int" on backend "Cpu"
# |1 2|
# |3 4|
# |5 6|
# |7 8|
# |11 12|
# |13 14|
# |15 16|
echo concat(a,b,c1, axis = 1)
# Tensor of shape 2x7 of type "int" on backend "Cpu"
# |1 2 5 6 11 12 13|
# |3 4 7 8 14 15 16|
```

### Broadcasting

Image from Scipy

```
import arraymancer
let j = [0, 10, 20, 30].toTensor.reshape(4,1)
let k = [0, 1, 2].toTensor.reshape(1,3)
echo j .+ k
# Tensor of shape 4x3 of type "int" on backend "Cpu"
# |0 1 2|
# |10 11 12|
# |20 21 22|
# |30 31 32|
```

### A simple two layers neural network

From example 3.

```
import arraymancer, strformat
discard """
A fully-connected ReLU network with one hidden layer, trained to predict y from x
by minimizing squared Euclidean distance.
"""
# ##################################################################
# Environment variables
# N is batch size; D_in is input dimension;
# H is hidden dimension; D_out is output dimension.
let (N, D_in, H, D_out) = (64, 1000, 100, 10)
# Create the autograd context that will hold the computational graph
let ctx = newContext Tensor[float32]
# Create random Tensors to hold inputs and outputs, and wrap them in Variables.
let
x = ctx.variable(randomTensor[float32](N, D_in, 1'f32))
y = randomTensor[float32](N, D_out, 1'f32)
# ##################################################################
# Define the model.
network ctx, TwoLayersNet:
layers:
fc1: Linear(D_in, H)
fc2: Linear(H, D_out)
forward x:
x.fc1.relu.fc2
let
model = ctx.init(TwoLayersNet)
optim = model.optimizerSGD(learning_rate = 1e-4'f32)
# ##################################################################
# Training
for t in 0 ..< 500:
let
y_pred = model.forward(x)
loss = mse_loss(y_pred, y)
echo &"Epoch {t}: loss {loss.value[0]}"
loss.backprop()
optim.update()
```

### Teaser A text generated with Arraymancer's recurrent neural network

From example 6.

Trained 45 min on my laptop CPU on Shakespeare and producing 4000 characters

```
Whter!
Take's servant seal'd, making uponweed but rascally guess-boot,
Bare them be that been all ingal to me;
Your play to the see's wife the wrong-pars
With child of queer wretchless dreadful cold
Cursters will how your part? I prince!
This is time not in a without a tands:
You are but foul to this.
I talk and fellows break my revenges, so, and of the hisod
As you lords them or trues salt of the poort.
ROMEO:
Thou hast facted to keep thee, and am speak
Of them; she's murder'd of your galla?
# [...] See example 6 for full text generation samples
```

## Table of Contents

- Arraymancer - A n-dimensional tensor (ndarray) library.

## Installation

Nim is available in some Linux repositories and on Homebrew for macOS.

I however recommend installing Nim in your user profile via `choosenim`

. Once choosenim installed Nim, you can `nimble install arraymancer`

which will pull the latest arraymancer release and all its dependencies.

To install Arraymancer development version you can use `nimble install arraymancer@#head`

.

Arraymancer requires a BLAS and Lapack library.

- On Windows you can get OpenBLAS and Lapack for Windows.
- On MacOS, Apple Accelerate Framework is included in all MacOS versions and provides those.
- On Linux, you can download libopenblas and liblapack through your package manager.

## Full documentation

Detailed API is available at Arraymancer official documentation. Note: This documentation is only generated for 0.X release. Check the examples folder for the latest devel evolutions.

## Features

For now Arraymancer is mostly at the multidimensional array stage, in particular Arraymancer offers the following:

- Basic math operations generalized to tensors (sin, cos, ...)
- Matrix algebra primitives: Matrix-Matrix, Matrix-Vector multiplication.
- Easy and efficient slicing including with ranges and steps.
- No need to worry about "vectorized" operations.
- Broadcasting support. Unlike Numpy it is explicit, you just need to use
`.+`

instead of`+`

. - Plenty of reshaping operations: concat, reshape, split, chunk, permute, transpose.
- Supports tensors of up to 6 dimensions. For example a stack of 4 3D RGB minifilms of 10 seconds would be 6 dimensions:
`[4, 10, 3, 64, 1920, 1080]`

for`[nb_movies, time, colors, depth, height, width]`

- Can read and write .csv, Numpy (.npy) and HDF5 files.
- OpenCL and Cuda backed tensors (not as feature packed as CPU tensors at the moment).
- Covariance matrices.
- Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors decomposition.
- Least squares solver.
- K-means and PCA (Principal Component Analysis).

### Arraymancer as a Deep Learning library

Deep learning features can be explored but are considered unstable while I iron out their final interface.

Reminder: The final interface is still **work in progress.**

You can also watch the following animated neural network demo which shows live training via nim-plotly.

#### Fizzbuzz with fully-connected layers (also called Dense, Affine or Linear layers)

Neural network definition extracted from example 4.

```
const
NumDigits = 10
NumHidden = 100
let ctx = newContext Tensor[float32]
network ctx, FizzBuzzNet:
layers:
hidden: Linear(NumDigits, NumHidden)
output: Linear(NumHidden, 4)
forward x:
x.hidden.relu.output
let model = ctx.init(FizzBuzzNet)
let optim = model.optimizerSGD(0.05'f32)
# ....
echo answer
# @["1", "2", "fizz", "4", "buzz", "6", "7", "8", "fizz", "10",
# "11", "12", "13", "14", "15", "16", "17", "fizz", "19", "buzz",
# "fizz", "22", "23", "24", "buzz", "26", "fizz", "28", "29", "30",
# "31", "32", "fizz", "34", "buzz", "36", "37", "38", "39", "40",
# "41", "fizz", "43", "44", "fizzbuzz", "46", "47", "fizz", "49", "50",
# "fizz", "52","53", "54", "buzz", "56", "fizz", "58", "59", "fizzbuzz",
# "61", "62", "63", "64", "buzz", "fizz", "67", "68", "fizz", "buzz",
# "71", "fizz", "73", "74", "75", "76", "77","fizz", "79", "buzz",
# "fizz", "82", "83", "fizz", "buzz", "86", "fizz", "88", "89", "90",
# "91", "92", "fizz", "94", "buzz", "fizz", "97", "98", "fizz", "buzz"]
```

#### Handwritten digit recognition with convolutions

Neural network definition extracted from example 2.

```
let ctx = newContext Tensor[float32] # Autograd/neural network graph
network ctx, DemoNet:
layers:
x: Input([1, 28, 28])
cv1: Conv2D(x.out_shape, 20, 5, 5)
mp1: MaxPool2D(cv1.out_shape, (2,2), (0,0), (2,2))
cv2: Conv2D(mp1.out_shape, 50, 5, 5)
mp2: MaxPool2D(cv2.out_shape, (2,2), (0,0), (2,2))
fl: Flatten(mp2.out_shape)
hidden: Linear(fl.out_shape, 500)
classifier: Linear(500, 10)
forward x:
x.cv1.relu.mp1.cv2.relu.mp2.fl.hidden.relu.classifier
let model = ctx.init(DemoNet)
let optim = model.optimizerSGD(learning_rate = 0.01'f32)
# ...
# Accuracy over 90% in a couple minutes on a laptop CPU
```

#### Sequence classification with stacked Recurrent Neural Networks

Neural network definition extracted example 5.

```
const
HiddenSize = 256
Layers = 4
BatchSize = 512
let ctx = newContext Tensor[float32]
network ctx, TheGreatSequencer:
layers:
# Note input_shape will only require the number of features in the future
# Input shape = [seq_len, batch_size, features]
gru1: GRU([3, Batch_size, 1], HiddenSize, 4) # (input_shape, hidden_size, stacked_layers)
fc1: Linear(HiddenSize, 32) # 1 classifier per GRU layer
fc2: Linear(HiddenSize, 32)
fc3: Linear(HiddenSize, 32)
fc4: Linear(HiddenSize, 32)
classifier: Linear(32 * 4, 3) # Stacking a classifier which learns from the other 4
forward x, hidden0:
let
(output, hiddenN) = gru1(x, hidden0)
clf1 = hiddenN[0, _, _].squeeze(0).fc1.relu
clf2 = hiddenN[1, _, _].squeeze(0).fc2.relu
clf3 = hiddenN[2, _, _].squeeze(0).fc3.relu
clf4 = hiddenN[3, _, _].squeeze(0).fc4.relu
# Concat all
# Since concat backprop is not implemented we cheat by stacking
# then flatten
result = stack(clf1, clf2, clf3, clf4, axis = 2)
result = classifier(result.flatten)
# Allocate the model
let model = ctx.init(TheGreatSequencer)
let optim = model.optimizerSGD(0.01'f32)
# ...
let exam = ctx.variable([
[float32 0.10, 0.20, 0.30], # increasing
[float32 0.10, 0.90, 0.95], # increasing
[float32 0.45, 0.50, 0.55], # increasing
[float32 0.10, 0.30, 0.20], # non-monotonic
[float32 0.20, 0.10, 0.30], # non-monotonic
[float32 0.98, 0.97, 0.96], # decreasing
[float32 0.12, 0.05, 0.01], # decreasing
[float32 0.95, 0.05, 0.07] # non-monotonic
# ...
echo answer.unsqueeze(1)
# Tensor[ex05_sequence_classification_GRU.SeqKind] of shape [8, 1] of type "SeqKind" on backend "Cpu"
# Increasing|
# Increasing|
# Increasing|
# NonMonotonic|
# NonMonotonic|
# Increasing| <----- Wrong!
# Decreasing|
# NonMonotonic|
```

### Tensors on CPU, on Cuda and OpenCL

Tensors, CudaTensors and CLTensors do not have the same features implemented yet. Also CudaTensors and CLTensors can only be float32 or float64 while CpuTensors can be integers, string, boolean or any custom object.

Here is a comparative table of the core features.

Action | Tensor | CudaTensor | ClTensor |
---|---|---|---|

Accessing tensor properties | [x] | [x] | [x] |

Tensor creation | [x] | by converting a cpu Tensor | by converting a cpu Tensor |

Accessing or modifying a single value | [x] | [] | [] |

Iterating on a Tensor | [x] | [] | [] |

Slicing a Tensor | [x] | [x] | [x] |

Slice mutation `a[1,_] = 10` |
[x] | [] | [] |

Comparison `==` |
[x] | [] | [] |

Element-wise basic operations | [x] | [x] | [x] |

Universal functions | [x] | [] | [] |

Automatically broadcasted operations | [x] | [x] | [x] |

Matrix-Matrix and Matrix-Vector multiplication | [x] | [x] | [x] |

Displaying a tensor | [x] | [x] | [x] |

Higher-order functions (map, apply, reduce, fold) | [x] | internal only | internal only |

Transposing | [x] | [x] | [] |

Converting to contiguous | [x] | [x] | [] |

Reshaping | [x] | [x] | [] |

Explicit broadcast | [x] | [x] | [x] |

Permuting dimensions | [x] | [] | [] |

Concatenating tensors along existing dimension | [x] | [] | [] |

Squeezing singleton dimension | [x] | [x] | [] |

Slicing + squeezing | [x] | [] | [] |

## What's new in Arraymancer v0.5.0 - "Sign of the Unicorn" - December 2018

This release is named after "Sign of the Unicorn" (1975), the third book of Roger Zelazny masterpiece "The Chronicles of Amber".

The full changelog is available in changelog.md.

Here are the highlights:

- Backward incompatible: PCA now returns a tuple of the projected tensor and the principal components. An overloaded PCA can be used with the principal axes supplied by the user.
- Datasets:
- MNIST is now autodownloaded and cached
- Added IMDB Movie Reviews dataset

- IO:
- Numpy file format support
- Image reading and writing support (jpg, bmp, png, tga)
- HDF5 reading and writing

- Machine learning
- Kmeans clustering

- Deep Learning
- RNN: GRU support including fused stacked GRU layers with sequence/timesteps
- Embedding layer with multiple timesteps support. Indexing can be done with integers, byte, chars or enums.
- Sparse softmax cross-entropy: the target tensor subtype can now be integers, byte, chars or enums.
- Adam optimiser (Adaptative Moment Estimation)
- Xavier Glorot, Kaiming He and Yann Lecun weight initialisation schemes

- N-D arrays / tensors
- Splitting and chunking support
- Fancy indexing via
`index_select`

- End-to-end examples:
- Sequence/time-series classification using RNN
- Text generation on Shakespeare and Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. This can be applied to any text-based dataset (including blog posts, Latex papers and code)

## 4 reasons why Arraymancer

### The Python community is struggling to bring Numpy up-to-speed

- Numba JIT compiler
- Dask delayed parallel computation graph
- Cython to ease numerical computations in Python
- Due to the GIL shared-memory parallelism (OpenMP) is not possible in pure Python
- Use "vectorized operations" (i.e. don't use for loops in Python)

Why not use in a single language with all the blocks to build the most efficient scientific computing library with Python ergonomics.

OpenMP batteries included.

### A researcher workflow is a fight against inefficiencies

Researchers in a heavy scientific computing domain often have the following workflow: Mathematica/Matlab/Python/R (prototyping) -> C/C++/Fortran (speed, memory)

Why not use in a language as productive as Python and as fast as C? Code once, and don't spend months redoing the same thing at a lower level.

### Can be distributed almost dependency free

Arraymancer models can be packaged in a self-contained binary that only depends on a BLAS library like OpenBLAS, MKL or Apple Accelerate (present on all Mac and iOS).

This means that there is no need to install a huge library or language ecosystem to use Arraymancer. This also makes it naturally suitable for resource-constrained devices like mobile phones and Raspberry Pi.

### Bridging the gap between deep learning research and production

The deep learning frameworks are currently in two camps:

- Research: Theano, Tensorflow, Keras, Torch, PyTorch
- Production: Caffe, Darknet, (Tensorflow)

Furthermore, Python preprocessing steps, unless using OpenCV, often needs a custom implementation (think text/speech preprocessing on phones).

- Managing and deploying Python (2.7, 3.5, 3.6) and packages version in a robust manner requires devops-fu (virtualenv, Docker, ...)
- Python data science ecosystem does not run on embedded devices (Nvidia Tegra/drones) or mobile phones, especially preprocessing dependencies.
- Tensorflow is supposed to bridge the gap between research and production but its syntax and ergonomics are a pain to work with. Like for researchers, you need to code twice, "Prototype in Keras, and when you need low-level --> Tensorflow".
- Deployed models are static, there is no interface to add a new observation/training sample to any framework, what if you want to use a model as a webservice with online learning?

Relevant XKCD from Apr 30, 2018

### So why Arraymancer ?

All those pain points may seem like a huge undertaking however thanks to the Nim language, we can have Arraymancer:

- Be as fast as C
- Accelerated routines with Intel MKL/OpenBLAS or even NNPACK
- Access to CUDA and CuDNN and generate custom CUDA kernels on the fly via metaprogramming.
- Almost dependency free distribution (BLAS library)
- A Python-like syntax with custom operators
`a * b`

for tensor multiplication instead of`a.dot(b)`

(Numpy/Tensorflow) or`a.mm(b)`

(Torch) - Numpy-like slicing ergonomics
`t[0..4, 2..10|2]`

- For everything that Nim doesn't have yet, you can use Nim bindings to C, C++, Objective-C or Javascript to bring it to Nim. Nim also has unofficial Python->Nim and Nim->Python wrappers.

## Future ambitions

Because apparently to be successful you need a vision, I would like Arraymancer to be:

- The go-to tool for Deep Learning video processing. I.e.
`vid = load_video("./cats/youtube_cat_video.mkv")`

- Target javascript, WebAssembly, Apple Metal, ARM devices, AMD Rocm, OpenCL, you name it.
- The base of a Starcraft II AI bot.
- Target cryptominers FPGAs because they drove the price of GPUs for honest deep-learners too high.